本站首页 返回顶部 关于博主

Adana Agreement 1998 Wikipedia

PDF版

By the late 1990s, Ankara had lost patience with Syria. Turkey has beaten the war drum by conducting NATO exercises in the region as well as independent mobilizations on the border with Syria. Faced with threats from Ankara, Syria signed the Adana Protocol in October 1998, closed PKK bases on its territory, arrested hundreds of PKK fighters and expelled PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan from Syria, leading to his capture in 1999. The traditionally tense relations between Turkey and Syria were due to disputes, including the self-annexation of Hatay province to Turkey in 1939, the water disputes over the South-East Anatolia project and Syria`s support for the Kurdistan Workers` Party (PKK) and the secret Armenian army for the liberation of Armenia (abbreviated ASALA), the EU and many other countries. Relations improved sharply after October 1998, when the PKK leader, Abdullah Ocalan, was expelled by the Syrian authorities. However, the Syrian civil war has once again weighed on relations between the two countries, which has led to the suspension of diplomatic contacts. [1] A serious incident occurred with the Syrian bombing of a Turkish military training ground in June 2012, which led Turkey to convene an emergency NATO meeting. After the meeting between Erdogan and Putin, rumours circulated that Turkey would ask Assad to reactivate the agreement in the event of reconciliation between two countries. Ankara accuses the Syrian regime of not respecting the agreement and says it must enter Syria to protect its borders from the PKK YPG member organization. He added that Ankara could use the Adana agreement to legally justify Turkish operations inside Syria, with Syria required under the 1998 agreement to prevent Kurdish fighters from using its territory as a scene of attacks inside Turkey. Russia – a staunch ally of al-Assad – proposed on Tuesday, during a meeting between Presidents Vladimir Putin and Recep Tayyip Erdogan, that any rapprochement between Syria and Turkey be based on the Adana agreement.

The two countries found themselves on the brink of war when Turkey threatened to carry out military action if Syria continued to protect Abdullah Ocalan in Damascus, his long-time refuge. Relations have improved since October 1998, when Ocalan was expelled from Damascus and Syria pledged to no longer house PKK fighters and the signing of the Adana agreement in 1999, after its capture in Kenya, provided for security cooperation between the two countries. [8] Syrian President Bashar al-Assad rejected the idea that the agreement had been signed under pressure and said he had approved it because he had decided that it was better for Syria “to be friends with the Turkish people”, which he said was not conciliatory with the Syrian support of Kurdish groups. [9] The first visit of a Syrian president to Turkey was made by Bashar al-Assad in Ankara in January 2004. [16] At the end of 2004, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan flew to Damascus, to sign a free trade agreement[15], following the high-level trade negotiations of former Turkish President Turgut Ozal with the Syrian authorities in the 1990s[3] and Erdogan`s recent successful attempt to begin Turkish membership of the EU that would allow Europe to “extend its reach to Syria`s borders”. Iraq and Iran. [17] On 3 April 2007, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad attended the opening ceremony of the Aleppo International Stadium. [18] Syria protected PKK groups from 1984 to 1998 because of the Hatay problem and Turkish dam projects on the Euphrates River.